The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume cultivated for its edible seeds or for fodder. It may be climbing and erect, as well as prostrate and creeping depending on the cultivar. Prostrate varieties grow to about 80 cm and climbing cultivars up to 2 m. It has a well developed root system. The leaves are trifoliate with oval leaflets, 6-15 cm long and 4-11 cm broad. The papillonaceous flowers can be white, yellowish, pale blue or violet and are distributed along axillary clusters. Pods occur in pairs forming a V, mostly pendulous but they can be erect. They are cylindrical, 6 to 20 cm long and 3-12 mm broad, and contain 8 to 20 seeds. Seeds can be white, pink, brown or black. . It is drought hardy crop also quick growing thus supressed weeds during initial stage. It also help to conserved soil and moisture. Cowpea is a good source of protein, calcium and iron.